British Antarctic Expedition 1910-13
After several years of fundraising, Captain Robert Falcon Scott returned to Antarctica in what was to become one of the most famous Antarctic expeditions of all time; the British Antarctic ‘Terra Nova’ Expedition of 1910-13. Although the expedition had an ambitious science programme planned, Scott’s main aim was to reach the South Pole first.
Arriving in Antarctica in January 1911, the expedition set up base at Skuary, which Scott renamed Cape Evans, on Ross Island, just twenty-five kilometres north of his previously established Discovery Hut. Thirty-one men were to winter over, with six making up the Northern party at Cape Adare and twenty-five the Shore party at Cape Evans, and buildings were constructed at both sites. Once the parties were established, the Terra Nova left for the winter and the men spent the time carrying out scientific work and preparing for the sledging expeditions ahead. One expedition was, however, undertaken that winter, to Cape Crozier to collect Emperor penguin eggs. With twenty-four hour darkness and temperatures as low as -59°C, the men’s teeth cracked in their mouths and despite losing their tent in a blizzard, the men made it back successfully.